We use seismic reflection as a method of geophysical exploration that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves. The method requires a controlled seismic source of energy, such as dynamite, a specialized air gun or a seismic vibrator, commonly known by the trademark name Vibroseis. By noting the time it takes for a reflection to arrive at a receiver, it is possible to estimate the depth of the feature that generated the reflection.
Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle governed by Snell's Law. Used in the fields of engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and exploration geophysics, seismic refraction traverses (seismic lines) are performed using a seismograph(s) and/or geophone(s), in an array and an energy source. The seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic waves on geologic layers and rock/soil units in order to characterize the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure.
The methods depend on the fact that seismic waves have differing velocities in different types of soil (or rock): in addition, the waves are refracted when they cross the boundary between different types (or conditions) of soil or rock. The methods enable the general soil types and the approximate depth to strata boundaries, or to bedrock, to be determined.
The refraction microtremor method combines the urban utility and ease of microtremor array techniques with the operational simplicity of the SASW technique, and the shallow accuracy of the MASW technique. By recording urban microtremor on a linear array of a large number of lightweight seismometers, the method achieves fast and easy field data collection without any need for the time-consuming heavy source required for SASW and MASW work. By retaining all the original seismograms and by applying a time-domain velocity analysis technique as is done in MASW, the analysis described here can separate Rayleigh waves from body waves, air waves, and other coherent noise. Transforming the time-domain velocity results into the frequency domain allows combination of many arrivals over a long time period, and yields easy recognition of dispersive surface waves.
The Seismoelectric method (also called the Electroseismic method or seismo-electric) is based on the generation of electromagnetic fields in soils and rocks by seismic waves. Although the method is not reported to detect groundwater flow, it does measure the hydraulic conductivity, which is related to permeability and, therefore, to the potential for groundwater flow.
The seismic refraction method is based on the measurement of the travel time of seismic waves refracted at the interfaces between subsurface layers of different velocity. Seismic energy is provided by a source ('shot') located on the surface. For shallow applications this normally comprises a hammer and plate, weight drop or small explosive charge (blank shotgun cartridge). Energy radiates out from the shot point, either travelling directly through the upper layer (direct arrivals), or travelling down to and then laterally along higher velocity layers (refracted arrivals) before returning to the surface. This energy is detected on surface using a linear array (or spread) of geophones spaced at regular intervals. Beyond a certain distance from the shot point, known as the cross-over distance, the refracted signal is observed as a first-arrival signal at the geophones (arriving before the direct arrival). Observation of the travel-times of the direct and refracted signals provides information on the depth profile of the refractor.
Shots are deployed at and beyond both ends of the geophone spread in order to acquire refracted energy as first arrivals at each geophone position.
Data are recorded on a seismograph and later downloaded to computer for analysis of the first-arrival times to the geophones from each shot position. Travel-time versus distance graphs are then constructed and velocities calculated for the overburden and refractor layers through analysis of the direct arrival and T-minus graph gradients. Depth profiles for each refractor are produced by an analytical procedure based on consideration of shot and receiver geometry and the measured travel-times and calculated velocities. The final output comprises a depth profile of the refractor layers and a velocity model of the subsurface.
The primary applications of seismic refraction are for determining depth to bedrock and bedrock structure. Due to the dependence of seismic velocity on the elasticity and density of the material through which the energy is passing, seismic refraction surveys provide a measure of material strengths and can consequently be used as an aid in assessing rippability and rock quality. The technique has been successfully applied to mapping depth to base of backfilled quarries, depth of landfills, thickness of overburden and the topography of groundwater.